Monthly Archives: May 2014

Fly Orchids in the Avon Gorge

FlyOrchid

Fly Orchid (Ophrys insectifera) is in flower currently in the Avon Gorge. To see the most accessible plants, head north on the towpath on the west side of the gorge, to an area of rock falls about half a mile north of the Suspension Bridge. I counted 10 plants in flower today by the fence at the bottom of the rocky slopes (see map & photo below). Here they grow in the open, in limestone grassland, but at other sites Fly Orchids occur in woodland.

Fly Orchid is a scarce plant around Bristol. The Avon Gorge is the only site in close proximity to the city: the location I visited on the North Somerset side is the most well-known, although Fly Orchid has also been found occasionally on the Bristol side. Elsewhere in the region, there is a cluster of sites in the Avon valley southeast of Bath, including Browns Folly and Avoncliff. There are several other sites farther south and east of here into Wiltshire and east Somerset, including Cleaves Wood near Wellow, Morgans Hill near Devizes, and a grassy bank on the north side of the A303 near Wincanton. Elsewhere in Somerset, Fly Orchid is only found on cliffs near Blue Anchor. Its stronghold is in the Cotswolds, with around 10 sites in the Stroud area and others southeast of Cheltenham. Although it formerly occurred in the Wye Valley, it is now extinct there.

FlyOrchidSite

Pollination is carried out by male digger wasps of the genus Argogorytes, which are attracted to the flowers by a pheromone; they mistake the flower for a female digger wasp and attempt to mate with it. In doing so, the orchid’s pollen sacs attach to the wasp, and are then transported to the next orchid the wasp visits. The Avon Gorge Fly Orchids are of particular note, as in the past, this process went a little awry and hybridisation occurred with Bee Orchid (Ophrys apifera): when these hybrids were first discovered here, in 1968, they were new to science. Hybrids are not known from the Avon Gorge currently, but they are present at the Wincanton site. Hybridisation has also occurred in Kent with Early Spider Orchid (Ophrys sphegodes).